Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Graphical methods are becoming increasingly used to monitor adverse outcomes from surgical interventions. However, uptake of such methods has largely been in the area of cardiothoracic surgery or in transplants with relatively little impact made in surgical oncology. A number of the more commonly used graphical methods including the Cumulative Mortality plot, Variable Life-Adjusted Display, Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) and funnel plots will be described. Accounting for heterogeneity in case-mix will be discussed and how ignoring case-mix can have considerable consequences. All methods will be illustrated using data from the Scottish Audit of Gastro-Oesophageal Cancer services (SAGOCS) data set.

Original publication




Journal article


European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology

Publication Date





473 - 480


Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Wolfson College Annexe, Linton Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.


Humans, Esophageal Neoplasms, Stomach Neoplasms, Esophagectomy, Gastrectomy, Medical Records, Hospital Mortality, Models, Statistical, Logistic Models, Cross-Sectional Studies, Medical Oncology, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Diagnosis-Related Groups, Risk Adjustment, Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care), Quality Assurance, Health Care, Quality Indicators, Health Care, Female, Male, Quality Improvement, United Kingdom