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IMPORTANCE: The Practical Guide to Implementing PROMs in Gender-Affirming Care (PG-PROM-GAC) is an evidence-based resource, which was developed in response to international calls for improved patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) implementation in gender-affirming care. The PG-PROM-GAC has the potential to improve PROM implementation; however, its real-world effectiveness has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Investigate effectiveness and fidelity of three implementation strategies from the PG-PROM-GAC in a real-world gender clinic setting. DESIGN: Interrupted time series mixed-methods study investigating response rates to a PROM deployed alongside implementation strategies from the PG-PROM-GAC; and open-ended feedback on the fidelity and effectiveness of implementation strategies. SETTING: Participants were recruited from a National Health Service (NHS) gender clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were being seen at an NHS gender clinic for an appointment during the study period, and were invited to participate in this study via email. INTERVENTION: Three implementation strategies from the PG-PROM-GAC deployed alongside a PROM. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Response rates were calculated at 2-week intervals, in line with the deployment of each implementation strategy. Open-ended responses were thematically analysed by two researchers following guidance from implementation science and interpretation from Normalisation Process Theory. RESULTS: A total of 28 participants were included in this study with a mean (SD) age of 39 (17) years. In general, participants rated education material for PROMs as the most important for PROM implementation, and accessibility options for PROMs as the second most important. Response rates to PROM completion dropped as the study progressed, as the burden of reviewing implementation strategies increased. Results were used to construct recommendations for future PROM implementation efforts. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The PG-PROM-GAC and implementation strategy materials developed from this study (ie, educational video on PROMs co-developed with key stakeholders) can be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers to lead PROM implementation efforts in gender-affirming care.

Original publication




Journal article


Bmj open qual

Publication Date





Health Equity, Health services research, Implementation science, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Patient Reported Outcome Measures