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We performed a case-control study of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population characterized by a high prevalence of pesticide exposure and studied the joint effect of pesticide exposure and CYP2D6. Although they are based on a small group of subjects with the joint exposure, our findings are consistent with a gene-environment interaction disease model according to which (1) pesticides have a modest effect in subjects who are not CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, (2) pesticides' effect is increased in poor metabolizers (approximately twofold), and (3) poor metabolizers are not at increased PD risk in the absence of pesticide exposure.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann neurol

Publication Date





430 - 434


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, Environmental Exposure, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Exposure, Parkinson Disease, Pesticides, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Genetic, Prevalence