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In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of coated microbubbles as vehicles for ultrasound mediated targeted drug delivery. This application requires a high degree of control over the size and uniformity of microbubbles, in order to ensure accurate dosing of a given drug and to maximise delivery efficiency. Similarly, as more advanced imaging techniques are developed which exploit the complex nonlinear features of the microbubble signal and/or enable quantification of tissue perfusion, the ability to predetermine the acoustic response of a microbubble suspension is becoming increasingly important. Consequently, a number of new preparation technologies have been developed to meet the demand for improved control over microbubble characteristics. The aim of the work described in this paper was to compare a conventional microbubble preparation technique, sonication, with two more recent methods: coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomisation and microfluidic (T-junction) processing, in terms of their ability to produce bubbles which are sufficiently small and stable for in vivo use, microbubble uniformity, relative production rates and other practical and economic considerations.

Original publication




Journal article


Med biol eng comput

Publication Date





883 - 892


Acoustics, Contrast Media, Drug Delivery Systems, Humans, Microbubbles, Microfluidics, Models, Theoretical, Particle Size, Sonication