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We have established that human tenocytes can differentiate in the absence of exogenous fetal bovine serum (FBS) but in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). The extent of tenocyte differentiation was assessed by examining cell survival, collagen synthesis, cell morphology and expression of tenocyte differentiation markers such as scleraxis (Scx), tenomodulin (Tnmd), collagen type I (Col-I) and decorin (Dcn). Our results indicate that 50 ng/ml IGF-1 and 10 ng/ml TGF-β3 (in the absence of FBS) were capable of maintaining in vitro human tenocyte survival in 14-day cultures. The extent of collagen synthesis and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of Scx, Tnmd, Col-I and Dcn were significantly upregulated in response to IGF-1 and TGF-β3. These findings have shown for the first time that human tenocytes can be maintained in long-term culture, in serum-free conditions, making this approach a suitable one for the purpose of tendon tissue engineering.

Original publication




Journal article


Cells tissues organs

Publication Date





27 - 36


Adolescent, Adult, Animals, Azo Compounds, Cattle, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Differentiation, Cell Growth Processes, Cell Survival, Cells, Cultured, Collagen, Coloring Agents, Culture Media, Humans, Male, Staining and Labeling, Tendons, Tissue Engineering, Young Adult