Survival and cure of acute myeloid leukaemia in England, 1971-2006: a population-based study.
Shah A., Andersson TM., Rachet B., Björkholm M., Lambert PC.
The 5-year relative survival of adults diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was less than 10% during the 1970s and 1980s in England. This population-based study estimated the 5-year relative survival and 'cure' for 48 380 adult patients diagnosed with AML in England during 1971-2006. Relative survival and cure mixture models were used to produce estimates of 5-year relative survival and the percentage 'cured'. 'Cure' was defined as the proportion of a group of survivors for whom there is no excess mortality compared with the general population. The 5-year relative survival and the percentage 'cured' increased for patients aged under 70 years at diagnosis during 1971-2006, but advancing age was associated with poorer outcome. During the study period a dramatic increase in 5-year relative survival occurred in those aged 15-24 years, from 7% to 53%. The percentage 'cured' was less than 10% for all ages in 1975, but increased to 45% for those aged 15-24 years in 2000. Cure could not be estimated for patients over 70 years, because survival was consistently low (<5%). The long-term outcome of patients with AML has improved substantially, particularly in younger patients. The potential exists for further increasing levels of 'cure'.