Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Seminal research over the past 20 years has revealed atherosclerosis to be a chronic inflammatory process that shares features with traditional inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. More recently, emphasis has been placed on the role of innate immunity in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In particular, pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), have been the focus of much attention as modulators of atherogenesis. This review provides an update on the developments in this area of research in the past 2 years, with a specific focus on the current controversies and how these may affect the design of therapeutics. Specifically, we will address the recent evidence that TLRs elicit both protective and detrimental effects in atherosclerosis and the emerging observation that the outcome of TLR signaling is dependent on the agonist and responding cell type.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends pharmacol sci

Publication Date





629 - 636


atheroma, inflammation, innate immunity, therapeutic, Animals, Atherosclerosis, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Toll-Like Receptors