ICAM-1 co-stimulates target cells to facilitate antigen presentation.
Lebedeva T., Dustin ML., Sykulev Y.
Adhesion molecules are known to mediate cell-cell interactions, particularly those between T cells and antigen-presenting or target cells. Recent studies identified ICAM-1 as a co-stimulatory ligand that binds to lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), thereby promoting the activation of T cells. As ICAM-1 is expressed on virtually any cell, it becomes a crucial molecule for the activation of CD8(+) T cells in the absence of co-stimulation provided by CD80 and CD86 molecules. In addition, ICAM-1 might function as cell-surface receptor, capable of initiating intracellular signaling. ICAM-1 is associated with other cell molecules, including MHC-I proteins, and our recent data show that productive engagement of ICAM-1 on target cells leads to recruitment of the MHC-I proteins to the contact area and enhances presentation of cognate peptide MHC-I complexes to cytotoxic T cells.