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Vitamin D status has been increasingly associated with wide-ranging clinical outcomes. There is now a wealth of observational studies reporting on its associations with obstetric complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and the mode and timing of delivery. The findings are inconsistent, and currently there is a lack of data from high-quality intervention studies to confirm a causal role for vitamin D in these outcomes. This is similarly true with regards to fetal development, including measures of fetal size and skeletal mineralisation. Overall, there is an indication of possible benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for offspring birthweight, calcium concentrations and bone mass as well as for reduced maternal pre-eclampsia. However, for none of these outcomes is the current evidence base conclusive, and the available data justify the instatement of high-quality randomised placebo controlled trials in a range of populations and health care settings to establish the potential efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation to improve particular outcomes.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur j endocrinol

Publication Date





R69 - R83


Animals, Bone Density, Dietary Supplements, Female, Fetal Development, Humans, Maternal Welfare, Observational Studies as Topic, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Pregnancy Outcome, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Vitamin D, Vitamin D Deficiency