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BACKGROUND: The application of statistics in reported research in trauma and orthopaedic surgery has become ever more important and complex. Despite the extensive use of statistical analysis, it is still a subject which is often not conceptually well understood, resulting in clear methodological flaws and inadequate reporting in many papers. METHODS: A detailed statistical survey sampled 100 representative orthopaedic papers using a validated questionnaire that assessed the quality of the trial design and statistical analysis methods. RESULTS: The survey found evidence of failings in study design, statistical methodology and presentation of the results. Overall, in 17% (95% confidence interval; 10-26%) of the studies investigated the conclusions were not clearly justified by the results, in 39% (30-49%) of studies a different analysis should have been undertaken and in 17% (10-26%) a different analysis could have made a difference to the overall conclusions. CONCLUSION: It is only by an improved dialogue between statistician, clinician, reviewer and journal editor that the failings in design methodology and analysis highlighted by this survey can be addressed.

Original publication




Journal article


Bmc med res methodol

Publication Date





Biomedical Research, Epidemiologic Studies, Humans, Models, Statistical, Orthopedics, Periodicals as Topic, Publishing, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Reproducibility of Results, Research Design, Sample Size, Surveys and Questionnaires