Vertebral Scheuermann’s disease in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over
Armbrecht G., Felsenberg D., Ganswindt M., Lunt M., Kaptoge SK., Abendroth K., Aroso A., Banzer D., Bhalla AK., Dequeker J., Eastell R., Hoszowski K., Lyritis G., Delmas PD., Masaryk P., Miazgowski T., Cannata J., Nuti R., Oei L., Poor G., Redlund-Johnell I., Reid DM., Reisinger W., Schatz H., Todd CJ., Woolf AD., Javaid K., Rivadeneira F., Silman AJ., Cooper C., O’Neill TW., Reeve J.
© 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Summary: In 27 centres across Europe, the prevalence of deforming spinal Scheuermann’s disease in age-stratified population-based samples of over 10,000 men and women aged 50+ averaged 8 % in each sex, but was highly variable between centres. Low DXA BMD was un-associated with Scheuermann’s, helping the differential diagnosis from osteoporosis. Introduction: This study aims to assess the prevalence of Scheuermann’s disease of the spine across Europe in men and women over 50 years of age, to quantitate its association with bone mineral density (BMD) and to assess its role as a confounder for the radiographic diagnosis of osteoporotic fracture. Methods: In 27 centres participating in the population-based European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), standardised lateral radiographs of the lumbar and of the thoracic spine from T4 to L4 were assessed in all those of adequate quality. The presence of Scheuermann’s disease, a confounder for prevalent fracture in later life, was defined by the presence of at least one Schmorl’s node or irregular endplate together with kyphosis (sagittal Cobb angle >40° between T4 and T12) or a wedged-shaped vertebral body. Alternatively, the (rare) Edgren-Vaino sign was taken as diagnostic. The 6-point-per-vertebral-body (13 vertebrae) method was used to assess osteoporotic vertebral shape and fracture caseness. DXA BMD of the L2–L4 and femoral neck regions was measured in subsets. We also assessed the presence of Scheuermann’s by alternative published algorithms when these used the radiographic signs we assessed. Results: Vertebral radiographic images from 4486 men and 5655 women passed all quality checks. Prevalence of Scheuermann’s varied considerably between centres, and based on random effect modelling, the overall European prevalence using our method was 8 % with no significant difference between sexes. The highest prevalences were seen in Germany, Sweden, the UK and France and low prevalences were seen in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Centre-level prevalences in men and women were highly correlated. Scheuermann’s was not associated with BMD of the spine or hip. Conclusions: Since most of the variation in population impact of Scheuermann’s was unaccounted for by the radiological and anthropometric data, the search for new genetic and environmental determinants of this disease is encouraged.