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STUDY DESIGN: Survey to all orthopedic and neurosurgeons, a random sample of family physicians (FPs) and patients in Ontario, Canada. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dominant clinical factors influencing patient and physician preferences for lumbar spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery on the degenerative lumbar spine offers significant benefit for patients with moderate-severe symptoms failing nonoperative treatment. Referring FPs have little appreciation of factors that identify the ideal surgical candidate. Differences in preferences may lead to wide variation in referrals and impedes the shared decision-making process. METHODS: We used conjoint analysis, a rigorous method for eliciting preferences, to determine the importance that respondents place on decisions for lumbar spinal surgery. We identified 6 clinical factors (walking tolerance, pain duration, severity, neurologic symptoms, typical onset, and dominant location of pain) and presented hypothetical vignettes to participants who rated their preference for surgery. Data were analyzed using random-effects ordered probit regression models and the importance of each clinical factor relative to the others was determined. RESULTS: We obtained responses from 131 surgeons, 202 FPs, and 164 patients. We found that FPs had the highest overall preferences for surgery and surgeons had the lowest. Surgeons placed the highest importance on the location of pain. FPs considered neurologic symptoms, walking tolerance, and severity to be of similar importance. Pain severity, walking tolerance, and duration of pain were the most important factors for patients in deciding for surgery. Orthopedic (over neurosurgical) surgeons had a lower preference for surgery (P < 0.05). Older patients (P < 0.03) and previous surgical consultation (P < 0.03) had greater patient preferences for surgery. CONCLUSION: Different preferences for surgery exist between surgeons, FPs, and patients. FPs may reduce over- and under-referrals by appreciating surgeons' importance on location of pain (leg vs. back). Surgeons and FPs may improve the shared decision-making process by understanding that patients place high importance on quality of life symptoms.

Original publication




Journal article


Spine (phila pa 1976)

Publication Date





108 - 115


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Attitude to Health, Female, Health Care Surveys, Humans, Lumbar Vertebrae, Male, Middle Aged, Ontario, Pain, Patient Preference, Physician-Patient Relations, Physicians, Practice Patterns, Physicians', Quality of Life, Regression Analysis, Severity of Illness Index, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Outcome