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Prenatal low vitamin D may have consequences for bone health. By means of a nationwide mandatory vitamin D fortification programme, we examined the risk of fractures among 10-18-year-old children from proximate birth cohorts born around the date of the termination of the programme. For all subjects born in Denmark during 1983-1988, civil registration numbers were linked to the Danish National Patient Registry for incident and recurrent fractures occurring at ages 10-18 years. Multiplicative Poisson models were used to examine the association between birth cohort and fracture rates. The variation in fracture rates across birth cohorts was analysed by fitting an age-cohort model to the data. We addressed the potential modification of the effect of vitamin D availability by season of birth. The risk of fractures was increased among both girls and boys who were born before the vitamin D fortification terminated in 1985 (rate ratio (RR) exposed v. non-exposed girls: 1·15 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·20); RR exposed v. non-exposed boys: 1·11 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·14). However, these associations no longer persisted after including the period effects. There was no interaction between season of birth and vitamin D availability in relation to fracture risk. The study did not provide evidence that prenatal exposure to extra vitamin D from a mandatory fortification programme of 1·25 µg vitamin D/100 g margarine was sufficient to influence the risk of fractures in late childhood, regardless of season of birth. Replication studies are needed.

Original publication

DOI

10.1017/S000711451700071X

Type

Journal article

Journal

Br j nutr

Publication Date

03/2017

Volume

117

Pages

872 - 881

Keywords

25(OH)D 25-hydroxy vitamin D ICD International Classification of Diseases, Children, Epidemiology, Fortification, Fracture risk, Vitamin D, Adolescent, Child, Cohort Studies, Denmark, Female, Food, Fortified, Fractures, Bone, Humans, Male, Margarine, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Risk, Seasons, Vitamin D, Vitamin D Deficiency, Vitamins