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A novel analysis system for the quantification of sclerosing foam properties under clinically relevant conditions was developed with the purpose of establishing a robust methodology for comparative characterisation of different foam formulations and production strategies. The developed biomimetic-inspired model comprised of 4 or 10 mm inner diameter polytetrafluoroethylene tubing, filled with a blood substitute and fixed to a platform with an adjustable inclination angle. Sclerosing foams were produced by mixing polidocanol with either atmospheric air or 100 % CO₂, using a double-syringe system method. Individual foams were injected into the tube, while videos were captured simultaneously. Videos were then transferred to an in-house computational foam analysis system (CFAS) which performed a sequence of semi-automated operations, allowing quantitative characterisation of sclerosing foam dynamic behaviour. Using CFAS, degradation rates of different foams were measured and the effect of gas composition, liquid sclerosant concentration and time delay between foam production and injection were evaluated.

Original publication




Journal article


J mater sci mater med

Publication Date





1417 - 1423


Biomimetics, Equipment Design, Gases, Humans, Materials Testing, Rheology, Sclerosing Solutions, Varicose Veins, Viscosity