Inflammatory Resolution Triggers a Prolonged Phase of Immune Suppression through COX-1/mPGES-1-Derived Prostaglandin E2.
Newson J., Motwani MP., Kendall AC., Nicolaou A., Muccioli GG., Alhouayek M., Bennett M., Van De Merwe R., James S., De Maeyer RPH., Gilroy DW.
Acute inflammation is characterized by granulocyte infiltration followed by efferocytosing mononuclear phagocytes, which pave the way for inflammatory resolution. Until now, it was believed that resolution then leads back to homeostasis, the physiological state tissues experience before inflammation occurred. However, we discovered that resolution triggered a prolonged phase of immune suppression mediated by prostanoids. Specifically, once inflammation was switched off, natural killer cells, secreting interferon γ (IFNγ), infiltrated the post-inflamed site. IFNγ upregulated microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) alongside cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1) within macrophage populations, resulting in sustained prostaglandin (PG)E2 biosynthesis. Whereas PGE2 suppressed local innate immunity to bacterial infection, it also inhibited lymphocyte function and generated myeloid-derived suppressor cells, the net effect of which was impaired uptake/presentation of exogenous antigens. Therefore, we have defined a sequence of post-resolution events that dampens the propensity to develop autoimmune responses to endogenous antigens at the cost of local tissue infection.