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© 2017 Cancer is a result of a series of complex events leading to uncontrolled cell growth. A number of key events need to occur in a single cell in order to lead to cancerous growth. These include overcoming the key regulators of the cell cycle, invasion of local tissue, establishment of a blood supply and potential spread to distant sites. A potential role for cancer stem cell in the process of invasion and spread is becoming apparent. Additionally, the role of some viruses and infections in causing certain cancers is now well understood and has led to effective vaccine strategies. The interplay of cancer biology and the immune system is an area of particular recent interest. A role of innate immune cells such as monocytes in driving cancer processes is now appreciated, while the potential of T cells in cancer surveillance has led to significant advances in medical therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Surgery (united kingdom)

Publication Date





134 - 138