Predictors of falls and fractures leading to hospitalization in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: A large representative cohort study.
Stubbs B., Mueller C., Gaughran F., Lally J., Vancampfort D., Lamb SE., Koyanagi A., Sharma S., Stewart R., Perera G.
AIM: To investigate predictors of falls/fractures leading to hospitalisation in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. METHODS: A historical cohort of people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (ICD F20-29) from 01/2006-12/2012 was assembled using data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Biomedical Research Centre Case Register. Falls/fractures were ascertained from a linkage to national hospitalisation data. Separate multivariate Cox regression analyses were employed to identify predictors of falls and fractures. RESULTS: Of 11,567 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (mean age 42.6 years, 43% female), 579 (incidence rate 12.79 per 1000 person-years) and 528 (11.65 per 1000 person-years) had at least one reported hospital admission due to a fall or fracture respectively and 822 patients had at least either a recorded fall or a fracture during this period (i.e. 7.1% of sample). Overall, 6.69 and 10.74 years of inpatient hospital stay per 1000-person years of follow-up occurred due to a fall and fracture respectively. 14(0.12%) and 28(0.24%) died due to a fall and fracture respectively. In Multivariable analysis, increasing age, white ethnicity, analgesics, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diseases of the genitourinary system, visual disturbance and syncope were significant risk factor for both falls and fractures. A previous fracture (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.53-2.73) and osteoporosis (HR 6.79, 95% CI 4.71-9.78) were strong risk factors for consequent fractures. CONCLUSION: Comorbid physical health conditions and analgesic medication prescription were associated with higher risk of falls and fractures. Osteoporosis and previous fracture were strong predictors for subsequent fractures. Interventions targeting bone health and falls/fractures need to be developed and evaluated in these populations.