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BACKGROUND: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and Greenlight laser vaporisation (GL) of the prostate are frequently performed urological procedures. For TURP, a single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) is recommended to reduce postoperative urinary tract infections. So far, no international recommendations for AP have been established for GL. In a survey-based study in Switzerland, Germany and Austria, urologists reported routinely extending AP primarily for 3 days after both interventions. We therefore aim to determine whether single-dose AP with cotrimoxazole is non-inferior to 3-day AP with cotrimoxazole in patients undergoing TURP or GL of the prostate. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. We plan to assess the non-inferiority of single-dose AP compared to 3-day AP. The primary outcome is the occurrence of clinically diagnosed symptomatic urinary tract infections which are treated with antimicrobial agents within 30 days after randomisation. The vast majority of collected outcomes will be assessed from routinely collected data. The sample size was estimated to be able to show the non-inferiority of single-dose AP compared to 3-day AP with at least 80% power (1 - β = 0.8) at a significance level of α = 5%, applying a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The non-inferiority margin was determined in order to preserve 70% of the effect of usual care on the primary outcome. For an assumed event rate of 9% in both treatment arms, this resulted in a non-inferiority margin of 4.4% (i.e. 13.4% to 9%). To prove non-inferiority, a total of 1574 patients should be recruited, in order to have 1416 evaluable patients. The study is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. DISCUSSION: For AP in TURP and GL, there is a large gap between usual clinical practice and evidence-based guidelines. If single-dose AP proves non-inferior to prolonged AP, our study findings may help to reduce the duration of AP in daily routine-potentially reducing the risk of emerging resistance and complications related to AP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT03633643 . Registered 16 August 2018.

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Antibiotic prophylaxis, Greenlight laser vaporisation, Randomised controlled trial, Transurethral resection of prostate, Urinary tract infection