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We characterized the presence and localization of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) mRNA in the regenerating tissues produced by distraction osteogenesis following tibial osteotomy in the rabbit. The findings are consistent with previous reports on the localization of BMP-4 mRNA expression during fracture repair. The BMP-4 gene is expressed by less differentiated osteoprogenitor cells (fibroblastic mesenchymal cells and preosteoblasts), and not by fully differentiated osteoblasts. BMP-4 gene expression is localized in callus-forming tissue (muscle, periosteum) during callus formation. Our observations suggest that the BMP-4 gene product is one of the local contributing factors in regulating bone and cartilage formation in distraction osteogenesis.


Journal article


Acta orthop scand

Publication Date





420 - 425


Animals, Blotting, Northern, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Bone Regeneration, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Expression, Humans, In Situ Hybridization, Osteoblasts, Osteogenesis, Osteogenesis, Distraction, RNA, Messenger, Rabbits, Tibia