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NDORMS research into management of clubfoot.

Act training

We are a multi-disciplinary group including surgeons, physiotherapists, doctors and qualitative researchers with an interest in management of clubfoot, especially in resource-limited settings. 


Prof Chris Lavy, Consultant Orthopaedic & Spine Surgeon

Mr Tim Theologis, Consultant Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon

Mr Andrew Wainwright, Consultant Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon

Tracey Smythe, Physiotherapist & PhD candidate

Jennifer McCahill, Highly Specialist Physiotherapist & PhD candidate

Dr Julie Stebbins, Clinical Scientist

Sarah Drew, Qualitative Researcher & DPhil candidate

Mr Jim Turner, Clinical Research Fellow in Global Surgery

Dr Claire Nugent, Oxford Academic Foundation Programme 2018

Dr Murtaza Kadhum, Oxford Academic Foundation Programme 2018/9

Grace Le, Researcher

Research projects with CURE Ethiopia Children's Hospital, Global Clubfoot Initiative, CURE Clubfoot & MiracleFeet.



Smythe T, Le G, Owen R, Ayana B, Hansen L, Lavy C. The development of a training course for clubfoot treatment in Africa: learning points for course development. BMC Med Educ. 2018 Jul 13;18(1):163. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1269-0. PMID: 30005662

Smythe T, Mudariki D, Foster A, Lavy C. Indicators to assess the functionality of clubfoot clinics in low-resource settings: a Delphi consensus approach and pilot study. Int Health. 2018 May 19. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihy033. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29788430.


McCahill J, Stebbins J, Koning B, Harlaar J, Theologis T. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity. Gait Posture. 2018 Mar;61:86-89. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.12.023. Epub 2017 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 29310014.


Turner J, Quiney F, Cashman J,Lavy C. The effectiveness of sustainable serial casting for clubfoot deformity in a low resource setting Malawi Medical Journal. 2018 Vol 30 Issue 1. doi:10.4314/mmj.v30i1.8

Drew S, Gooberman-Hill R, Lavy C. What factors impact on the implementation of clubfoot treatment services in low and middle-income countries?: a narrative synthesis of existing qualitative studies. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Mar 2;19(1):72. doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-1984-z. PubMed PMID: 29499667; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5834880.

Smythe T, Wainwright A, Foster A, Lavy C. What is a good result after clubfoot treatment? A Delphi-based consensus on success by regional clubfoot trainers from across Africa. PLoS One. 2017 Dec  1;12(12):e0190056. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190056. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 29267350; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC5739468.

Smythe T, Mudariki D, Kuper H, Lavy C, Foster A. Assessment of success of the Ponseti method of clubfoot management in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Nov 15;18(1):453. doi: 10.1186/s12891-017-1814-8. PubMed PMID: 29141609; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5688674.

Grimes CE, Holmer H, Maraka J, Ayana B, Hansen L, Lavy CBD. Cost-effectiveness of club-foot treatment in low-income and middle-income countries by the Ponseti method. BMJ Glob Health. 2016 May 26;1(1):e000023. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2015-000023. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 28588918; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC5321308.

Smythe T, Kuper H, Macleod D, Foster A, Lavy C. Birth prevalence of congenital talipes equinovarus in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Mar;22(3):269-285. doi:10.1111/tmi.12833. Epub 2017 Jan 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28000394.

Smythe T, Chandramohan D, Bruce J, Kuper H, Lavy C, Foster A. Results of clubfoot treatment after manipulation and casting using the Ponseti method: experience in Harare, Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2016 Oct;21(10):1311-1318. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12750. Epub 2016 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 27388947.

Drew S, Lavy C, Gooberman-Hill R. What factors affect patient access and engagement with clubfoot treatment in low- and middle-income countries? Meta-synthesis of existing qualitative studies using a social ecological model. Trop Med Int Health. 2016 May;21(5):570-89. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12684. Epub 2016 Mar
10. Review. PubMed PMID: 26892686. 


Owen RM, Penny JN, Mayo A, Morcuende J, Lavy CB. A collaborative public health approach to clubfoot intervention in 10 low-income and middle-income countries: 2-year outcomes and lessons learnt. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2012 Jul;21(4):361-5. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0b013e3283504006. PubMed PMID: 22240485. 


Bedford KJ, Chidothi P, Sakala H, Cashman J, Lavy C. Clubfoot in Malawi: treatment-seeking behaviour. Trop Doct. 2011 Oct;41(4):211-4. doi: 10.1258/td.2011.110121. Epub 2011 Aug 30. PubMed PMID: 21878442.

Bedford KJ, Chidothi P, Sakala H, Cashman J, Lavy C. Clubfoot in Malawi: local theories of causation. Trop Doct. 2011 Apr;41(2):65-7. doi: 10.1258/td.2010.100261. Epub 2011 Jan 24. PubMed PMID: 21262955. 


Wainwright AM, Auld T, Benson MK, Theologis TN. The classification of congenital talipes equinovarus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Sep;84(7):1020-4. PubMed PMID: 12358365.

Theologis TN, Harrington ME, Thompson N, Benson MK. Dynamic foot movement in children treated for congenital talipes equinovarus. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 May;85(4):572-7. PubMed PMID: 12793566.