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BACKGROUND: In both the United Kingdom (UK) and Brazil, women undergoing mastectomy should be offered breast reconstruction. Patients may benefit from physical therapy to prevent and treat muscular deficits. However, there are uncertainties regarding which physical therapy program to recommend. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the clinical practice of physical therapists for patients undergoing breast reconstruction for breast cancer. A secondary aim was to compare physical therapy practice between UK and Brazil. METHODS: Online survey with physical therapists in both countries. We asked about physical therapists' clinical practice. RESULTS: 181 physical therapists completed the survey, the majority were from Brazil (77%). Respondents reported that only half of women having breast reconstruction were routinely referred to physical therapy postoperatively. Contact with patients varied widely between countries, the mean number of postoperative sessions was 5.7 in the UK and 15.1 in Brazil. The exercise programs were similar for different reconstruction operations. Therapists described a progressive loading structure over time: range of motion (ROM) was restricted to 90° of arm elevation in the first two postoperative weeks; by 2-4 weeks ROM was unrestricted; at 1-3 months muscle strengthening was initiated, and after three months the focus was on sports-specific activities. CONCLUSION: Only half of patients having a breast reconstruction are routinely referred to physical therapy. Patients in Brazil have more intensive follow-up, with up to three times more face-to-face contact with a physical therapist than in the UK. Current practice broadly follows programs for mastectomy care rather than being specific to reconstruction surgery.

Original publication




Journal article


Braz j phys ther

Publication Date



Breast cancer, Breast reconstruction, Exercise, Physical therapy, Survey