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Metabolic function and energy production in eukaryotic cells are regulated by mitochondria, which have been recognized as the intracellular 'powerhouses' of eukaryotic cells for their regulation of cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial function is important not only in normal developmental and physiological processes, but also in a variety of human pathologies, including cardiac diseases. An emerging topic in the field of cardiovascular medicine is the implication of mitochondrial nucleoid for metabolic reprogramming. This review describes the linear/3D architecture of the mitochondrial nucleoid (e.g., highly organized protein-DNA structure of nucleoid) and how it is regulated by a variety of factors, such as noncoding RNA and its associated R-loop, for metabolic reprogramming in cardiac diseases. In addition, we highlight many of the presently unsolved questions regarding cardiac metabolism in terms of bidirectional signaling of mitochondrial nucleoid and 3D chromatin structure in the nucleus. In particular, we explore novel techniques to dissect the 3D structure of mitochondrial nucleoid and propose new insights into the mitochondrial retrograde signaling, and how it regulates the nuclear (3D) chromatin structures in mitochondrial diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Basic res cardiol

Publication Date





3D genome Organization, Cardiovascular diseases, Metabolic reprogramming, Mitochondrial nucleoid