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Background We investigate if renin-angiotensin and endothelin-1 response pathways follow the same pattern of recovery as left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Ninety patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (n=30 in each of "acute," "convalescent" [3-5 months] and "recovered" [>1 year] groups) who were on minimal or no medication and were free of any significant cardiac/metabolic comorbidities, and 30 controls were studied. Serum concentrations of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II, big endothelin-1, endothelin-1 were measured using commercially available ELISA, and B-type natriuretic peptide was measured using an immunoassay. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was <40% during the acute phase in all groups, but recovered to 63% in convalescent and 64% in the recovered groups, respectively. Serum renin concentrations remain persistently elevated after a episode of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (P=0.03 versus controls). Angiotensin converting enzyme levels are significantly depressed during the acute phase compared with convalescent (P=0.004), recovered takotsubo cardiomyopathy (P=0.02) or controls (P=0.03). Angiotensin II is increased in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (P<0.001 versus controls) remaining persistently elevated in the chronically recovered group alone (P=0.03 versus controls). Big endothelin-1 levels are unchanged, but endothelin-1 is significantly lower after takotsubo cardiomyopathy compared with controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Despite "normalization" of the left ventricular ejection fraction, there is long-term maladaptive activation of renin-angiotensin system in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Registration URL:; Unique identifiers: NCT02897739, NCT02989454.

Original publication




Journal article


J am heart assoc

Publication Date





angiotensin, cardiomyopathy, endothelin, renin, takotsubo, Angiotensin II, Endothelin-1, Humans, Renin, Stroke Volume, Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy, Ventricular Function, Left