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Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow-based plasma cell tumour that develops from asymptomatic pre-cursor conditions smouldering myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance and all are characterised by the presence of a monoclonal protein in the blood. Diagnosis and distinction between these conditions is based on blood tests, the bone marrow biopsy and cross sectional imaging. There are various risk stratification models that group patients with smouldering myeloma into risk groups based on risk of progression to symptomatic disease. Management is mainly observational for patients with smouldering myeloma although clinical trials for high-risk disease may be available. Restaging is required if evidence for progression.

Original publication




Journal article


Br j haematol

Publication Date



MGUS, multiple myeloma, myeloma therapy, myeloma