The transcription factor ETS-1: its role in tumour development and strategies for its inhibition.
Hahne JC., Okuducu AF., Sahin A., Fafeur V., Kiriakidis S., Wernert N.
Transcription factors are an important group of proteins. Changes in expression or activity of transcription factors result in diverse and manifold effects on the whole transcriptome of the cell. Therefore transcription factors are of special interest in physiological as well as pathological processes particularly tumour development and progression. In this review we focus on Ets-1, the prototype of the ETS family of transcription factors. ETS family members play important roles in development, differentiation and proliferation of cells in general and they are involved in apoptosis and tissue remodelling as well. Most of them are downstream nuclear targets of Ras-MAP kinase signalling and the deregulation of ets genes results in malignant transformation of different cells. Several ets genes are rearranged in human leukaemia, Ewing tumours and prostate cancer to produce chimeric oncoproteins. Furthermore, an aberrant expression of several ets genes is often observed in various types of human malignant tumours. With regard to the involvement of some ETS transcription factors, especially Ets-1, in malignant transformation and tumour progression (including invasion, metastasis and neoangiogenesis) through transactivation of cancer related genes, they are potential molecular targets for selective cancer therapy. In this review we focus on the roles of Ets-1 for tumour development and progression with special emphasis on tumour vascularization and invasion. We then discuss specific strategies for Ets-1 inhibition as a potential tool for cancer treatment.