Outcomes of bracing in juvenile idiopathic scoliosis until skeletal maturity or surgery.
Khoshbin A., Caspi L., Law PW., Donaldson S., Stephens D., da Silva T., Bradley CS., Wright JG.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of bracing in patients with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (JIS) at either skeletal maturity or time of scoliosis surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: JIS is generally thought to have poor outcomes with high rates of surgical fusion. METHODS: All patients with JIS between the ages of 4 and 10 years treated with a brace at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) between 1989 and 2011 were eligible. Data were collected from patient health records until either 2 years after skeletal maturity or date of surgery. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis of 88 patients with JIS was 8.4 ± 1.4 years, with a female to male ratio of approximately 8:1. Pretreatment, Risser score was zero for 80 patients (91%); 72 (92%) of the females were premenarche; and primary Cobb angles ranged from 20° to 71°. Of the 88 patients, 60 (68%) had used a thoracolumbosacral orthosis exclusively; 28 (32%) patients used "other braces" (Milwaukee, Charleston, or a combination of braces), with an average treatment duration of 3.6 ± 1.9 years.As per Scoliosis Research Society definitions, a "non-curve-progression" (≤5° change) group consisted of 25 (28%) patients; and a "curve-progression" group consisted of 63 (72%) patients where the curve had progressed 6° or more.Of the 88 patients, 44 (50%) underwent surgery. The operative rate was higher for patients with curves 30° or more than those with curves 20° to 29° prior to brace treatment (37/58 [64%] vs. 7/30 [23%], respectively; P = 0.001); other braces compared with thoracolumbosacral orthosis (19/28 [68%] vs. 25/60 [42%], respectively; P = 0.02); Lenke I and III curves compared with Lenke VI curves (33/54 [61%] vs. 2/14 [14%], respectively; P = 0.007).