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The human femur is one of the parts of the musculo-skeletal system most frequently analysed by means of the finite element (FE) method. Most FE studies of the human femur are based on computed tomography data sets of a particular femur. Since the geometry of the chosen sample anatomy influences the computed results, direct comparison across various models is often difficult or impossible. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a novel three-dimensional FE model of the human femur based on the muscle standardized femur (MuscleSF) geometry. In the new MuscleSF FE model, the femoral attachment of each muscle was meshed separately on the external bone surface. The model was tested under simple load configurations and the results showed good agreement with the converged solution of a former study. In the future, using the validated MuscleSF FE model for numerical studies of the human femur will provide the following benefits: (a) the numerical accuracy of the model is known; (b) muscle attachment areas are incorporated in the model, therefore physiological loading conditions can be easily defined; (c) analyses of the femur under physiological load cases will be replicable; (d) results based on different load configurations could be compared across various studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc inst mech eng h

Publication Date





165 - 172


Compressive Strength, Computer Simulation, Computer-Aided Design, Elasticity, Femur, Finite Element Analysis, Humans, Locomotion, Models, Biological, Motion, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Reference Standards, Rotation, Sensitivity and Specificity, Stress, Mechanical, Torque, Weight-Bearing