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© 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In most populations hip fracture incidence increases exponentially with age. Factors such as ethnicity, geographic location, and socioeconomic status have all been shown to influence hip fracture incidence. The majority of vertebral fractures in elderly women occur through normal activities such as lifting, rather than through falling. Wrist fractures show a different pattern of occurrence to hip and vertebral fractures, with a gradual increase in rates with age. There is variation in the incidence of hip fracture within populations of a given ethnicity and gender, documented within and across countries. The importance of bone mineral accrual in childhood and achievement of adequate peak bone mass (PBM) in early adulthood has been emphasized in recent work, showing that PBM is a major determinant osteoporosis risk in later life.

Original publication





Book title

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism

Publication Date



398 - 404